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Creating a Vue Application

The application instance

Every Vue application starts by creating a new application instance with the createApp function:

import { createApp } from 'vue'

const app = createApp({
  /* root component options */

The Root Component

The object we are passing into createApp is in fact a component. Every app requires a "root component" that can contain other components as its children.

If you are using Single-File Components, we typically import the root component from another file:

import { createApp } from 'vue'
// import the root component App from a single-file component.
import App from './App.vue'

const app = createApp(App)

While many examples in this guide only need a single component, most real applications are organized into a tree of nested, reusable components. For example, a Todo application's component tree might look like this:

App (root component)
├─ TodoList
│  └─ TodoItem
│     ├─ TodoDeleteButton
│     └─ TodoEditButton
└─ TodoFooter
   ├─ TodoClearButton
   └─ TodoStatistics

We will discuss how to define and compose multiple components together in later sections of the guide. Before that, we will focus on what happens inside a single component.

Mounting the App

An application instance won't render anything until its .mount() method is called. It expects a "container" argument, which can either be an actual DOM element or a selector string:

<div id="app"></div>

The content of the app's root component will be rendered inside the container element. The container element itself is not considered part of the app.

The .mount() method should always be called after all app configurations and asset registrations are done. Also note that its return value, unlike the asset registration methods, is the root component instance instead of the application instance.

In-DOM Root Component Template

When using Vue without a build step, we can write our root component's template directly inside the mount container:

<div id="app">
  <button @click="count++">{{ count }}</button>
import { createApp } from 'vue'

const app = createApp({
  data() {
    return {
      count: 0


Vue will automatically use the container's innerHTML as the template if the root component does not already have a template option.

App Configurations

The application instance exposes a .config object that allows us to configure a few app-level options, for example defining an app-level error handler that captures errors from all descendent components:

app.config.errorHandler = (err) => {
  /* handle error */

The application instance also provides a few methods for registering app-scoped assets. For example, registering a component:

app.component('TodoDeleteButton', TodoDeleteButton)

This makes the TodoDeleteButton available for use anywhere in our app. We will discuss registration for components and other types of assets in later sections of the guide. You can also browse the full list of application instance APIs in its API reference.

Make sure to apply all app configurations before mounting the app!

Multiple application instances

You are not limited to a single application instance on the same page. The createApp API allows multiple Vue applications to co-exist on the same page, each with its own scope for configuration and global assets:

const app1 = createApp({
  /* ... */

const app2 = createApp({
  /* ... */

If you are using Vue to enhance server-rendered HTML and only need Vue to control specific parts of a large page, avoid mounting a single Vue application instance on the entire page. Instead, create multiple small application instances and mount them on the elements they are responsible for.

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